Das Darwine-Projekt sollte Wine sowie andere unterstützende Tools portieren und entwickeln, mit denen Darwin- und Mac OS X-Benutzer. Hi. Ich habe gelesen, dass es mit einem Programm namens "Darwine" möglich sein soll Windows Programme auf dem Mac zu nutzen. Stimmt. Mit Darwine können bestimmte Windows-Programme unter Mac OS X ausgeführt werden, ohne Windows installieren zu müssen. Das Darwine-Projekt portiert.
Darwin (Betriebssystem)Installation und Nutzung von Winebottler und Darwine unter OS X. ein Akronym aus dem Opensource OS X Kernel „Darwin" und „Wine", dem Linux Projekt. Darwine basiert auf dem Linux-Projekt Wine, das Windows-Programme wie Word oder Excel mit Linux kompatibel machen will. Anders als bei. Mit Darwine können bestimmte Windows-Programme unter Mac OS X ausgeführt werden, ohne Windows installieren zu müssen. Das Darwine-Projekt portiert.
Darwine Technical information VideoLa franchise de Darwin - Chansons Gumball - Cartoon Network
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Studies at the University of Cambridge Christ's College encouraged his passion for natural science. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, and in conceived his theory of natural selection.
His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms , he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.
Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury , Shropshire, on 12 February , at his family's home, The Mount.
His grandfathers Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood were both prominent abolitionists. Erasmus Darwin had praised general concepts of evolution and common descent in his Zoonomia , a poetic fantasy of gradual creation including undeveloped ideas anticipating concepts his grandson expanded.
Both families were largely Unitarian , though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself quietly a freethinker , had baby Charles baptised in November in the Anglican St Chad's Church, Shrewsbury , but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother.
The eight-year-old Charles already had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in That July, his mother died.
From September , he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder. Darwin spent the summer of as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going to the University of Edinburgh Medical School at the time the best medical school in the UK with his brother Erasmus in October Darwin found lectures dull and surgery distressing, so he neglected his studies.
He learned taxidermy in around 40 daily hour-long sessions from John Edmonstone , a freed black slave who had accompanied Charles Waterton in the South American rainforest.
In Darwin's second year at the university he joined the Plinian Society , a student natural-history group featuring lively debates in which radical democratic students with materialistic views challenged orthodox religious concepts of science.
One day, Grant praised Lamarck 's evolutionary ideas. Darwin was astonished by Grant's audacity, but had recently read similar ideas in his grandfather Erasmus' journals.
He learned the classification of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the University Museum , one of the largest museums in Europe at the time.
Darwin's neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to Christ's College, Cambridge , to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican country parson.
As Darwin was unqualified for the Tripos , he joined the ordinary degree course in January During the first few months of Darwin's enrollment, his second cousin William Darwin Fox was also studying at Christ's Church.
Fox impressed him with his butterfly collection, introducing Darwin to entomology and influencing him to pursue beetle collecting.
When his own exams drew near, Darwin applied himself to his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of William Paley 's Evidences of Christianity  In his final examination in January Darwin did well, coming tenth out of candidates for the ordinary degree.
Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June He studied Paley's Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity first published in , which made an argument for divine design in nature , explaining adaptation as God acting through laws of nature.
Inspired with "a burning zeal" to contribute, Darwin planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics.
In preparation, he joined Adam Sedgwick 's geology course, then on 4 August travelled with him to spend a fortnight mapping strata in Wales.
The ship was to leave in four weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America. After delays, the voyage began on 27 December ; it lasted almost five years.
As FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while HMS Beagle surveyed and charted coasts.
Most of his zoology notes are about marine invertebrates, starting with plankton collected in a calm spell. On their first stop ashore at St Jago in Cape Verde , Darwin found that a white band high in the volcanic rock cliffs included seashells.
FitzRoy had given him the first volume of Charles Lyell 's Principles of Geology , which set out uniformitarian concepts of land slowly rising or falling over immense periods, [II] and Darwin saw things Lyell's way, theorising and thinking of writing a book on geology.
The survey continued to the south in Patagonia. He identified the little-known Megatherium by a tooth and its association with bony armour, which had at first seemed to him to be like a giant version of the armour on local armadillos.
The finds brought great interest when they reached England. On rides with gauchos into the interior to explore geology and collect more fossils, Darwin gained social, political and anthropological insights into both native and colonial people at a time of revolution, and learnt that two types of rhea had separate but overlapping territories.
He read Lyell's second volume and accepted its view of "centres of creation" of species, but his discoveries and theorising challenged Lyell's ideas of smooth continuity and of extinction of species.
Three Fuegians on board had been seized during the first Beagle voyage , then during a year in England were educated as missionaries.
Darwin found them friendly and civilised, yet at Tierra del Fuego he met "miserable, degraded savages", as different as wild from domesticated animals.
Unlike his scientist friends, he now thought there was no unbridgeable gap between humans and animals.
The Fuegian they had named Jemmy Button lived like the other natives, had a wife, and had no wish to return to England.
Darwin experienced an earthquake in Chile in and saw signs that the land had just been raised, including mussel -beds stranded above high tide.
High in the Andes he saw seashells, and several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach. He theorised that as the land rose, oceanic islands sank, and coral reefs round them grew to form atolls.
He heard that slight variations in the shape of tortoise shells showed which island they came from, but failed to collect them, even after eating tortoises taken on board as food.
FitzRoy investigated how the atolls of the Cocos Keeling Islands had formed, and the survey supported Darwin's theorising. In Cape Town , South Africa , Darwin and FitzRoy met John Herschel , who had recently written to Lyell praising his uniformitarianism as opening bold speculation on "that mystery of mysteries, the replacement of extinct species by others" as "a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous process".
By the time Darwin returned to England, he was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December Henslow had fostered his former pupil's reputation by publishing a pamphlet of Darwin's geological letters for select naturalists.
Darwin promptly made the long coach journey to Shrewsbury to visit his home and see relatives. He then hurried to Cambridge to see Henslow, who advised him on finding naturalists available to catalogue Darwin's animal collections and who agreed to take on the botanical specimens.
British zoologists at the time had a huge backlog of work due to natural history collecting being promoted and encouraged through the British Empire, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage.
Charles Lyell eagerly met Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist Richard Owen , who had the facilities of the Royal College of Surgeons to work on the fossil bones collected by Darwin.
Owen's surprising results included other gigantic extinct ground sloths as well as the Megatherium , a near complete skeleton of the unknown Scelidotherium and a hippopotamus -sized rodent -like skull named Toxodon resembling a giant capybara.
The armour fragments were actually from Glyptodon , a huge armadillo-like creature as Darwin had initially thought. In mid-December, Darwin took lodgings in Cambridge to organise work on his collections and rewrite his Journal.
On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the Zoological Society. The ornithologist John Gould soon announced that the Galapagos birds that Darwin had thought a mixture of blackbirds , " gros-beaks " and finches , were, in fact, twelve separate species of finches.
On 17 February, Darwin was elected to the Council of the Geological Society, and Lyell's presidential address presented Owen's findings on Darwin's fossils, stressing geographical continuity of species as supporting his uniformitarian ideas.
Early in March, Darwin moved to London to be near this work, joining Lyell's social circle of scientists and experts such as Charles Babbage ,  who described God as a programmer of laws.
Darwin stayed with his freethinking brother Erasmus, part of this Whig circle and a close friend of the writer Harriet Martineau , who promoted Malthusianism underlying the controversial Whig Poor Law reforms to stop welfare from causing overpopulation and more poverty.
As a Unitarian , she welcomed the radical implications of transmutation of species , promoted by Grant and younger surgeons influenced by Geoffroy.
Transmutation was anathema to Anglicans defending social order,  but reputable scientists openly discussed the subject and there was wide interest in John Herschel 's letter praising Lyell's approach as a way to find a natural cause of the origin of new species.
Darwin had not labelled the finches by island, but from the notes of others on the ship, including FitzRoy, he allocated species to islands.
By mid-March , barely six months after his return to England, Darwin was speculating in his Red Notebook on the possibility that "one species does change into another" to explain the geographical distribution of living species such as the rheas, and extinct ones such as the strange extinct mammal Macrauchenia , which resembled a giant guanaco , a llama relative.
He sketched branching descent, and then a genealogical branching of a single evolutionary tree , in which "It is absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another", discarding Lamarck's idea of independent lineages progressing to higher forms.
While developing this intensive study of transmutation, Darwin became mired in more work. As Darwin worked under pressure, his health suffered.
On 20 September he had "an uncomfortable palpitation of the heart", so his doctors urged him to "knock off all work" and live in the country for a few weeks.
After visiting Shrewsbury he joined his Wedgwood relatives at Maer Hall , Staffordshire, but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest.
His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin Emma Wedgwood , nine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. William Whewell pushed Darwin to take on the duties of Secretary of the Geological Society.
After initially declining the work, he accepted the post in March The strain took a toll, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms.
For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe boils , palpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress, such as attending meetings or making social visits.
The cause of Darwin's illness remained unknown, and attempts at treatment had only ephemeral success. On 23 June, he took a break and went "geologising" in Scotland.
He visited Glen Roy in glorious weather to see the parallel "roads" cut into the hillsides at three heights. He later published his view that these were marine raised beaches , but then had to accept that they were shorelines of a proglacial lake.
Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. Used to jotting down daily notes on animal breeding, he scrawled rambling thoughts about marriage, career and prospects on two scraps of paper, one with columns headed "Marry" and "Not Marry".
Advantages under "Marry" included "constant companion and a friend in old age He did not get around to proposing, but against his father's advice he mentioned his ideas on transmutation.
Continuing his research in London, Darwin's wide reading now included the sixth edition of Malthus 's An Essay on the Principle of Population , and on 28 September he noted its assertion that human "population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio", a geometric progression so that population soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe.
Darwin was well prepared to compare this to de Candolle 's "warring of the species" of plants and the struggle for existence among wildlife, explaining how numbers of a species kept roughly stable.
As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost.
In October , that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed.
The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work By mid-December, Darwin saw a similarity between farmers picking the best stock in selective breeding , and a Malthusian Nature selecting from chance variants so that "every part of newly acquired structure is fully practical and perfected",  thinking this comparison "a beautiful part of my theory".
On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. She accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness in sharing their differences, also expressing her strong Unitarian beliefs and concerns that his honest doubts might separate them in the afterlife.
On 24 January , Darwin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society FRS. On 29 January, Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home.
Darwin now had the framework of his theory of natural selection "by which to work",  as his "prime hobby".
When FitzRoy's Narrative was published in May , Darwin's Journal and Remarks was such a success as the third volume that later that year it was published on its own.
Darwin's book The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs on his theory of atoll formation was published in May after more than three years of work, and he then wrote his first "pencil sketch" of his theory of natural selection.
I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject.
By July, Darwin had expanded his "sketch" into a page "Essay", to be expanded with his research results if he died prematurely. Darwin scorned its amateurish geology and zoology, but carefully reviewed his own arguments.
Controversy erupted, and it continued to sell well despite contemptuous dismissal by scientists. Darwin completed his third geological book in He now renewed a fascination and expertise in marine invertebrates , dating back to his student days with Grant , by dissecting and classifying the barnacles he had collected on the voyage, enjoying observing beautiful structures and thinking about comparisons with allied structures.
In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Darwin went in to Dr. James Gully 's Malvern spa and was surprised to find some benefit from hydrotherapy.
In eight years of work on barnacles Cirripedia , Darwin's theory helped him to find " homologies " showing that slightly changed body parts served different functions to meet new conditions, and in some genera he found minute males parasitic on hermaphrodites , showing an intermediate stage in evolution of distinct sexes.
By the start of , Darwin was investigating whether eggs and seeds could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans.
Hooker increasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend Thomas Henry Huxley was still firmly against the transmutation of species.
Lyell was intrigued by Darwin's speculations without realising their extent. When he read a paper by Alfred Russel Wallace , "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species", he saw similarities with Darwin's thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence.
Though Darwin saw no threat, on 14 May he began writing a short paper. Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a "big book on species" titled Natural Selection , which was to include his "note on Man".
He continued his researches, obtaining information and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in Borneo.
In mid he added a section heading; "Theory applied to Races of Man", but did not add text on this topic. On 5 September , Darwin sent the American botanist Asa Gray a detailed outline of his ideas, including an abstract of Natural Selection , which omitted human origins and sexual selection.
In December, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. He responded that he would avoid that subject, "so surrounded with prejudices", while encouraging Wallace's theorising and adding that "I go much further than you.
Darwin's book was only partly written when, on 18 June , he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection.
Shocked that he had been "forestalled", Darwin sent it on that day to Lyell, as requested by Wallace,   and although Wallace had not asked for publication, Darwin suggested he would send it to any journal that Wallace chose.
His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of scarlet fever , and he put matters in the hands of his friends. After some discussion, with no reliable way of involving Wallace, Lyell and Hooker decided on a joint presentation at the Linnean Society on 1 July of On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection.
On the evening of 28 June, Darwin's baby son died of scarlet fever after almost a week of severe illness, and he was too distraught to attend.
There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; the president of the Linnean Society remarked in May that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries.
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Great software, thank you. For me this one is fine! But could be better. Alternate download page. The binary release requires Mac OS X Panther To install just drag the folder Darwine to your Applications folder.
This was necessary because older PPCs cannot run code built for x86 processors AMD or Intel. Later on, the Darwine project has merged back to the Wine tree because Apple has moved all the new macOS releases to the x86 platform.
However, Wine has been successfully ported for PowerPC, by using XQuartz.